What It Takes To Build A Ventilator

The incessant and destructive march of Covid-19 across the world continues unabated. Until a proven vaccine is made available to large number of people there is only one system that stands between life and death for people that can be adversely impacted by Covid-19 – A Ventilator.

Many people are casually asking why isn’t Tesla, Ford, GM, or the local machine shop not building a ventilator by the hundreds of thousands and ship them to hospitals. While ventilators may not be as sophisticated as rockets or autonomous cars, they are not simple blowers/HVAC systems either. The reference design document from Freescale (NXP) gives an outline of medical grade ventilator design.

Before you read this blog post you should really read this reference design document from Freescale/NXP thoroughly.


The following is a picture of a ventilator




The main components are shown below


The full Bill of Material of a ventilator may look like this.


Ventilator Bill of Material (Includes System Board BOM)

Part Number Part Name Quantity Part Type
Medical Ventilator Medical Ventilator Assembly
   LCD Character Display Module LCD Character Display Module 1.00000 Part
   Standoff HexM4 THR Alum Standoff HexM4 THR Alum 4.00000 Part
   Connection Socket CONN SOCKET 30 Yes 22-26AWG 30AU CRIMP 30.00000 Part
   3/2 Electrovalve Plate 3/2 Electrovalve Plate 2.00000 Part
   Board With Components Board with Components 1.00000 Assembly
   Color Button Color Button 4.00000 Part
   AW 24 Wire AW 24 Wire 1.00000 Part
   Conn Rcpt CONN RECEPT 16POS 24AWG MTA100 – Display 1.00000 Part
   Air Chamber Air Chamber 1.00000 Part
   Anesthetic Patient Circuit Anesthetic Patient Circuit 1.00000 Part
   2/2 Miniaturized Electrovalve 2/2 Miniaturized Electrovalve 2.00000 Part
   Anesthetic Bag Anesthetic Bag 1.00000 Part
   Electrical Valve Connector Electrical Valve Connector 4.00000 Part
   4mm Air Hose 4mm Air Hose 2.00000 Part
   Aluminum Panel Aluminum Panel 1.00000 Part
   Espirometry Hose Espirometry Hose 1.00000 Part
   3/4 CPVC Female Adapter 3/4 CPVC Female Adapter 2.00000 Part
   Air Compressor Air Compressor 1.00000 Part
   Suitcase Suitcase 1.00000 Part
   2/2 Electrovalve Plate 2/2 Electrovalve Plate 2.00000 Part
   Conn Housing CONN HOUSING 30POS .100 SINGLE 1.00000 Part
   Conn Receptable Housing CONN RCPT HSNG 2POS CST-100 II – I- button 1.00000 Part
   3/2 Miniaturized Electrovalve 3/2 Miniaturized Electrovalve 2.00000 Part
   Y Reduction Connector Y Reduction Connector 1.00000 Part
   3/4 to 3/8 Reduction 3/4 to 3/8 Reduction 2.00000 Part
   Pressure Sampling Line Pressure Sampling Line 1.00000 Part
   Fitting Fitting 8.00000 Part
   Reduction 1/4 to 4mm Reduction 1/4 to 4mm 4.00000 Part
   D-Lite Sensor D-Lite Sensor (Venturi) 1.00000 Part
   3/8 to 5/32 Reduction 3/8 to 5/32 Reduction 2.00000 Part
   Computer Power Supply Computer Power Supply 1.00000 Part
Board With Components Board with Components Assembly
   Capacitor Ceramic 0.47UF CAP CER .47UF 50V X7R 0805 1.00000 Part
   Transistor NPN TRANS NPN EPITAX 100V 3A TO-220 5.00000 Part
   IC Reg Positive IC REG POSITIVE 2A 5V TO-220 1.00000 Part
   IC Pressure Sensor 7 PSI IC PRESSURE SENSOR 8-SOP 7PSI 1.00000 Part
   Buzzer Mag BUZZER MAG 2.0KHZ 3V 12MM 1.00000 Part
   Resistor 220 Ohm RES 220 OHM 1/8W 5% 0805 SMD 2.00000 Part
   LED Red LED 5MM RED 1000MCD ALINGAP GAAS 1.00000 Part
   IC Temp Sensor IC TEMP SENSOR MULTI-GAIN SC70-5 1.00000 Part
   LED Green LED GREEN S-J TYPE 0805 1.00000 Part
   LCD Connection Header LCD CONN HEADER VERT 16POS .100 TIN 1.00000 Part
   Ferrite Chip 220 Ohm FERRITE CHIP 220 OHM 2000MA 0805 3.00000 Part
   Conn Term Block CONN TERM 6 BLOCK 2.54MM 2POS 6.00000 Part
   LED Soft Orange LED SOFT ORANGE S-J TYPE 0805 1.00000 Part
   32 Bit Medical MCU 32 Bit Medical MCU 1.00000 Part
   Resistor 33 Ohm RES 33 OHM 1/8W 5% 0805 SMD 2.00000 Part
   Jumper 3 Pin CONN HEADER VERT 3POS .100 TIN 2.00000 Part
   Crystal 16 Mhz CRYSTAL 16.000000 MHZ 8PF SMD 1.00000 Part
   Capacitor 4.7UF CAP ELECT 4.7UF 50V VS SMD 2.00000 Part
   Diode Schottky DIODE SCHOTTKY 30V 2A SMA 7.00000 Part
   Resisitor 0.0 Ohm RES 0.0 OHM 1/8W 0805 SMD 6.00000 Part
   IC LDO Reg FXD IC LDO REG FXD- VOLT 3.3V TO-220 1.00000 Part
   Resistor 180 Ohm RES 180 OHM 1/8W 5% 0805 SMD 1.00000 Part
   Diode Rect Ufast DIODE RECT UFAST 150V TO220AC 1.00000 Part
   Resistor 470 Ohm RES 470 OHM 1/8W 1% 0805 SMD 5.00000 Part
   Resistor 4.7K Ohm RES 4.7K OHM 1/8W 5% 0805 SMD 1.00000 Part
   Resistor 330 Ohm RES 330 OHM 1/8W 5% 0805 SMD 2.00000 Part
   LED Amber LED AMBER S-J TYPE 0805 1.00000 Part
   IC Pressure Sensor 14 PSI IC PRESSURE SENSOR 8-SOP 14PSI 1.00000 Part
   Optocoupler OPTOCOUPLER TRANS-OUT 6-DIP 1.00000 Part
   Capacitor 47 CAP 47UF 35V ELECT WT SMD 3.00000 Part
   Capacitor Ceramic 10000PF CAP CER 10000PF 50V 10% X7R 0805 2.00000 Part
   Thumbwheel Pot 10K Ohm POT 10K OHM THUMBWHEEL CERM ST 1.00000 Part
   Ferrite Bead 270 Ohm FERRITE BEAD 270 OHM 0603 2.00000 Part
   Ibutton Tactile Probe IBUTTON TACTILE PROBE CONN HEADER VERT 2POS .100 TIN 5.00000 Part
   Switch Tact SWITCH TACT SILVR 200GF GULLWING 1.00000 Part
   Resistor 1.0M Ohm RES 1.0M OHM 1/8W 5% 0805 SMD 1.00000 Part
   Sealed PCB RELAY AUTO 15A 12VDC SEALED PCB 1.00000 Part
   Conn Recept Mini USB CONN RECEPT MINI USB2.0 5POS 1.00000 Part
   Diode TVS DIODE TVS 13V 1500W UNI 5% SMC 1.00000 Part
   Connection Header Vert .100 CONN HEADER VERT .100 6POS 15AU 1.00000 Part
   Capacitor 10UF CAP ELECT 10UF 25V VS SMD 1.00000 Part
   Resistor 330K Ohm RES 330K OHM 1/8W 5% 0805 SMD 3.00000 Part
   Pressure Sensor Dual Port PRESSURE SENSOR DUAL PORT 8-SOP 2.00000 Part
   Resistor 10K Ohm RES 10K OHM 1/8W 5% 0805 SMD 1.00000 Part
   Resistor 169K Ohm RES 169K OHM 1/8W 1% 0805 SMD 2.00000 Part


System Board Manufacturer Parts List

(Keep in mind that the reference design is from 2011 so many of the parts may not be available)

Part Number Manufacturer Mftr’s Part No Ro HS Max Temp
LED Soft Orange Panasonic – SSG LNJ806K5SRX
32 Bit Medical MCU Freescale Semiconductor MCF51MM256CLL
Capacitor Ceramic 10000PF Murata Electronics GRM216R71H103 KA01D
Resistor 4.7K Ohm Panasonic ECG ERJ-6GEYJ472V
IC Pressure Sensor 14 PSI Freescale Semiconductor MPXV5100GP
Resistor 33 Ohm Stackpole Electronics RMCF0805JT33R0
LCD Connection Header Tyco Electronics 1-640456-6
Resistor 180 Ohm Panasonic ECG ERJ-6GEYJ181V
Diode Schottky Diodes Inc B230A-13-F
Buzzer Mag CUI Inc CSQG703BP
Sealed PCB Panasonic Electric Works JSM1A-12V-5
IC Reg Positive ST Microelectronics L78S05CV
Resistor 330K Ohm Panasonic ECG ERJ-6GEYJ334V
LED Red Vishay TLHK5800
Resistor 330 Ohm Panasonic ECG ERJ-6GEYJ331V
Capacitor 4.7UF Panasonic ECG EEE-1HA4R7AR
Capacitor 47 Nichicon UWT1V470MCL1G S
Switch Tact C&K Components KSR221GLFS
Connection Header Vert .100 Tyco Electronics 87227-3
IC Pressure Sensor 7 PSI Freescale Semiconductor MP3V5050GP
Resistor 220 Ohm Panasonic ECG ERJ-6GEYJ221V
LED Amber Panasonic – SSG LNJ406K5YUX
Crystal 16 Mhz NDK NX3225SA-16.000 000MHZ
IC LDO Reg FXD Texas Instruments TLV2217-33KCSE3
Ferrite Chip 220 Ohm Murata BLM21PG221SN1 D
Resisitor 0.0 Ohm Panasonic ECG ERJ-6GEY0R00V
Diode TVS Littelfuse SMCJ13A
Capacitor Ceramic 0.47UF Murata Electronics GRM21BR71H474 KA88L
Resistor 1.0M Ohm Panasonic ECG ERJ-6GEYJ105V
Pressure Sensor Dual Port Freescale Semiconductor MPXV7025DP
Ibutton Tactile Probe Tyco Electronics 640456-2
Jumper 3 Pin Tyco Electronics 3-644456-3
Resistor 10K Ohm Panasonic ECG ERJ-6GEYJ103V
LED Green Panasonic – SSG LNJ306G5UUX
Transistor NPN Fairchild Semiconductor IP31C
Capacitor 10UF Panasonic ECG EEE-1EA100SR
Optocoupler Fairchild Semiconductor 4N27M
Conn Term Block Phoenix Contact 1725656
Ferrite Bead 270 Ohm Taiyo Yuden BKP1608HS271-T
Thumbwheel Pot 10K Ohm Bourns Inc 3352W-1-103LF
Resistor 470 Ohm Panasonic ECG ERJ-6ENF4700V
Diode Rect Ufast NXP BYW29E-150,127
Conn Recept Mini USB Hirose Electric UX60A-MB-5ST
IC Temp Sensor National Semiconductor LM94021BIMG/ NOPB


Ventilator Manufacturer Parts List

Part Number Manufacturer Mftr’s Part No Ro HS Max Temp
LCD Character Display Module Optrex America C-51847NFJ-SLW- ADN
Standoff HexM4 THR Alum Keystone Electronics S24453
Connection Socket Tyco Electronics 5-103171-5
3/2 Electrovalve Plate Festo MHP1-AS-3-M3
Board With Components
Color Button
AW 24 Wire
Conn Rcpt Tyco Electronics 4-643814-6
Air Chamber IDEAS
Anesthetic Patient Circuit Hudson
2/2 Miniaturized Electrovalve Festo MHP1-M4H-2/2G- M3-TC
Anesthetic Bag Sunmed
Electrical Valve Connector Festo KMH-0,5
4mm Air Hose Festo
Aluminum Panel
Espirometry Hose GE Health
3/4 CPVC Female Adapter
Air Compressor Goodyear I300
Suitcase Pelican
2/2 Electrovalve Plate Festo MHP1-AS-2-M3
Conn Housing Tyco Electronics 5-87499-8
Conn Receptable Housing Tyco Electronics 1375820-2
3/2 Miniaturized Electrovalve Festo MHP1-M4H-3/2G- M3-TC
Y Reduction Connector Festo QSY-8-4
3/4 to 3/8 Reduction
Pressure Sampling Line
Fitting Festo QSM-M3-4
Reduction 1/4 to 4mm Festo QS-1/4-4
D-Lite Sensor GE Health
3/8 to 5/32 Reduction
Computer Power Supply Acteck




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